Language is a means of communication between living things. Not only humans, but also other living creatures need language and gestures to communicate their messages between each other.
Talking about language of Muslims, they speak various languages. Not all muslims are situated at a single place, so they speak the language of that particular place where they are staying. Muslims speak various languages like Javanese, Punjabi, Malav, Benagli, Fula, Hausa, Tatar, Turkish, Persian, Pashto, Balochi, Kashmiri etc. The early literature and the holy books of Islam have been written in Arabic only because the religion originated from Mecca where people spoke Arabic. After some time when Islam began to spread in the world, people speaking languages other than Arabic also wrote books and literature in their languages too.
Importance of Arabic
All the important early literature including holy books or the secular books, all were written in Arabic only. The holiest books of Islam, the Quran which was dictated by the angel Gabriel to Muhammad was in the Arabic language itself and so it has been originally written in Arabic language. Though people have translated in many other languages too but it is preferred to be read in Arabic only because those are the words of God himself which should not be modified in any means. Quran has been written in a right to left script and is a bit complicated, but once a person learns it, it is quite easy to read and understand it.
Importance of Arabic in Muslims can be understood by that the Quran and the other holy books are written in Arabic. It doesn’t matter where a muslim resides, it is considered important for muslims to learn Arabic to understand Quran properly. Even the people who translated the Quran in other languages also prefer and go back to reading Quran in Arabic only. Quran has been translated only to make it more understandable, but the prayers are supposed to be in Arabic only, so as to not change what God stated.
Muslims differ each other in many aspects like culture, mother tongues, geographical places etc, but the Arabic language is something that keeps them tied together. Even though all the muslims do not speak Arabic for communicating, almost every Muslim knows Arabic because the Quranic verses are written in Arabic.
When a person speaks of languages, it is also important to cover the literature too. Islamic literature has been written in many languages depending on the location of the author who wrote the book etc.
Arabic is definitely the most popular language in which the Islamic literature has been written. After Arabic the most used language was Persian in which many literature has been written. After the 11th century, Turkish literature came into market. For a long time, Islamic literature had been written in India too in many Asian languages.
Basically, islamic literature has been written in arabic, indonesian, javanese, iranian, kurdish, persian, somali, bengali, sindhi, pakistani, urdu, turkish etc.
People learn languages in order to communicate with each other. English, being one of the most popular languages in the world also includes Islamic literature for people who belong to places where only English is the mostly spoken language. There are translators who translate important Islamic literature to their local languages to make it available and understandable to the people.